Biodiversity and Ecosystem (EO 1)

Common Indicator 3: Species distributional range - Marine Turtles

Geographical scale of the assessment:
Regional, Mediterranean Sea
Contributing countries: 
No national data was available for this assessment.
Mid-Term Strategy (MTS) Core Theme:
2-Biodiversity and Ecosystems
Ecological Objective:
EO1: Biological diversity is maintained or enhanced. The quality and occurrence of coastal and marine habitats and the distribution and abundance of coastal and marine species are in line with prevailing physiographic, hydrographic, geographic and climatic conditions.
IMAP Common Indicator:
Common Indicator 3 (CI3): Species distributional range (Marine reptiles)
Indicator Assessment Factsheet Code:

GES Definition: The species continues to occur in all their natural range in the Mediterranean, including nesting, mating, feeding and wintering and developmental (where different to those of adults) sites.

GES Targets:

  • State: Turtle distribution is not significantly affected by human activities;
  • State: Turtles continue to nest in all known nesting sites.
  • Pressure: Protection of known nesting, mating, foraging, wintering and developmental turtle sites.
  • Pressure: Human activities having the potential to exclude marine turtles from their range area are regulated and controlled.
  • Pressure: The potential impact of climate change is assessed.



This assessment presents a brief overview of the known distribution range of loggerhead and green sea turtles at breeding, foraging and wintering grounds, based on published data. Sea turtles are an ideal model species to assess the selected indicator, as their populations are dispersed throughout the entire Mediterranean, as discrete breeding, foraging, wintering and developmental habitats (Casale & Margaritoulis, 2010), making the two sea turtle species a reliable indicator on the status of biodiversity across this region. Therefore, the objective of this indicator is to determine the species range of sea turtles that are present in Mediterranean waters.

Read more

Assessment methods               

This assessment presents a brief and general overview of the distributional range of two marine turtle species to identify existing knowledge and knowledge gaps for use in elaborating the national monitoring programmes for biodiversity. Published information by regional and national surveys and research projects were used to compile the review, but this overview does not present a comprehensive assessment of existing knowledge.

Read more

Results and Status, including trends 

This general overview reconfirms that most nesting sites of loggerheads are located in the eastern and central basins of the Mediterranean, in particular in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus and Libya, while all green turtle nesting sites are located in the eastern basin, primarily Turkey, Syria and Cyprus. The number of nests found at different sites is not just dependent on climate, but other factors, like predation, sand type/structure etc. Most research has been conducted on nesting beaches; consequently, detailed information about marine habitat use at developmental, foraging and wintering grounds and how these areas connect with one another and the overlap in use by multiple populations is still missing.

Read more


This general overview stresses the importance of assimilating all available information on the distribution of sea turtles at breeding, foraging, developmental sites and how these areas are connected to understand the distribution patterns of sea turtles at the size class, population and species level to select key areas for protection. Parallel mitigation strategies are required to build the resilience of existing populations.

Read more

Key messages 

  • This general overview stresses the importance of assimilating all information on the distribution of green and loggerhead sea turtles in the Mediterranean at breeding, foraging, developmental and wintering grounds to understand how these areas are connected when considering different size classes, populations and species for effective conservation management.
  • Parallel mitigation strategies are required to build the resilience of existing populations.

Read more


Almpanidou V., Costescu J., Schofield G., Türkozan O., Hays G.C., Mazaris A.D., (2016). Using climatic suitability thresholds to identify past, present and future population viability. Ecological Indicators 71: 551–556.

Álvarez de Quevedo I, Cardona L, De Haro A, Pubill E, Aguilar A. 2010. Sources of bycatch of loggerhead sea turtles in the western Mediterranean other than drifting longlines. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67: 677–685.

Bentivegna F, Ciampa M, Hochscheid S. 2011. The Presence of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in Italian coastal waters during the last two decades. Marine Turtle Newsletter 131: 41-46.

Bentivegna F. 2002. Intra-Mediterranean migrations of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) monitored by satellite telemetry. Marine Biology, 141, 795–800.

Bowen BW, Karl SA. 2007. Population genetics and phylogeography of sea turtles. Mol. Ecol. 16, 4886-4907.

Bowen BW et al. 2004. Natal homing in juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta). Molecular Ecology 13, 3797–3808.

Broderick AC, Coyne MS, Fuller WJ, Glen F. & Godley BJ. 2007. Fidelity and overwintering of sea turtles. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B Biological Sciences, 274, 1533–1538.

Broderick AC, Godley BJ. 1996. Population and nesting ecology of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in northern Cyprus. Zoology in the Middle East 13: 27–46.

Broderick AC, Godley BJ, Hays GC. 2001. Trophic status drives interannual variabilityin nesting numbers of marine turtles. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 268, 1481-1487.

Broderick AC, Glen F., Godley BJ, Hays G. 2002. Estimating the number of green and loggerhead turtles nesting annually in the Mediterranean, Oryx 36, 227‐235.

Broderick AC, Glen F, Godley BJ, Hays GC. 2003. Variation in reproductive output of marine turtles. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 288: 95-109.

Buckland ST, Anderson DR, Burnham KP & Laake JL. 1993. Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 0-412-42660-9

Cardona L, Clusa M, Elena Eder E, Demetropoulos A, Margaritoulis D, Rees, AF, Hamza, AA, Khalil, M, Levy, Y, Türkozan, O, Marín, I, Aguilar, A. 2014. Distribution patterns and foraging ground productivity determine clutch size in Mediterranean loggerhead turtles Marine Ecology Progress Series 497: 229–241.

Cardona L, Revelles M, Carreras C, San Félix M, Gazo M, Aguilar A. 2005. Western Mediterranean immature loggerhead turtles: habitat use in spring and summer assessed through satellite tracking and aerial surveys. Marine Biology 147: 583-591.

Carreras C, Monzón-Argüello C, López-Jurado LF, Calabuig P, Bellido JJ, Castillo JJ, Sánchez P, Medina P, Tomás J, Gozalbes P, Fernández G, Marco A, Cardona L. 2014. Origin and dispersal routes of foreign green and Kemp’s Ridley turtles in Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean waters Amphibia-Reptilia 35: 73-86.

Carreras C, Pont S, Maffucci F, Pascual M, Barcelo A, Bentivegna F, Cardona L, Alegre F, SanFelix M, Fernandez G & Aguila, A. 2006. Genetic structuring of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea reflects water circulation patterns Marine Biology, 149, 1269–1279.

Casale P. 2011. Sea turtle by‐catch in the Mediterranean Fish Fish 12, 299-316

Casale, P. 2015. Caretta caretta (Mediterranean subpopulation). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015:e.T83644804A83646294, 

Casale P, Affronte M and Insacco G, Freggi D, Vallini C, d’Astore PP, Basso R, Paolillo G, Abbatte G & Argano R. 2010. Sea turtle strandings reveal high anthropogenic mortality in Italian waters Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 20, 611–620.

Casale P, Aprea A, Deflorio M, De Metrio G. 2012. Increased by-catch rates in the Gulf of Taranto, Italy, in 20 years: a clue about sea turtle population trends? Chelonian Conservation and Biology 11(2): 239-243.

Casale P, Broderick AC, Freggi D, Mencacci R, Fuller WJ, Godley BJ & Luschi P. 2012. Long-term residence of juvenile loggerhead turtles to foraging grounds: a potential conservation hotspot in the Mediterranean Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, DOI: 101002/aqc2222

Casale P, Conte N, Freggi D, Cioni C, Argano R. 2011. Age and growth determination by skeletochronology in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from the Mediterranean Sea Scientia Marina 75(1): 197-203.

Casale P, Freggi D, Basso R, et al. 2005. Size at male maturity, sexing methods and adult sex ratio in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Italian waters investigated through tail measurements Herpetolog J 15: 145-148.

Casale P, Freggi D, Basso R, Vallini C, Argano R. 2007. A model of area fidelity, nomadism, and distribution patterns of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea Marine Biology, 152, 1039–1049.

Casale P, Freggi D, Cinà A, Rocco M. 2013. Spatio-temporal distribution and migration of adult male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea: further evidence of the importance of neritic habitats off North Africa Marine Biology 160: 703-718.

Casale P, Freggi D, Maffucci F, Hochscheid S. 2014. Adult sex ratios of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in two Mediterranean foraging grounds Scientia Marina 78(2).

Casale P, Gerosa G, Argano R, et al. 1998. Testosterone titers of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) incidentally caught in the central Mediterranean: a preliminary sex ratio study Chelonian Conserv Biol 3: 90-93.

Casale P, Lazar B, Pont S, et al. 2006. Sex ratios of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta in the Mediterranean Sea Mar Ecol Prog Ser 324: 281-285.

Casale P, Mariani, P. 2014. The first “lost year” of Mediterranean sea turtles: dispersal patterns indicate subregional management units for conservation Marine Ecology Progress Series 498: 263–274.

Casale P, Margaritoulis D (Eds). 2010. Sea Turtles in the Mediterranean: Distribution, Threats and Conservation Priorities IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 294 pp http://iucn-mtsgorg/publications/med-report/

Casale P, Pino d’Astore P, Argano R. 2009. Age at size and growth rates of early juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean based on length frequency analysis Herpetological Journal 19: 23-33.

Chaieb O, El Ouaer A, Maffucci F, Bradai MN, Bentivegna F, Said K, Chatti N. 2010. Genetic survey of loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta nesting population in Tunisia Marine Biodiversity Records 3, e20.

Chaieb O, El Ouaer A, Maffucci F, Karaa S, Bradai MN, ElHili H, Bentivegna F, Said K & Chatti N. In press. Population structure and dispersal patterns of loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta in Tunisian coastal waters, Central Mediterranean Endangered Species Research.

Clusa M, Carreras C, Pascual M, Demetropoulos A, Margaritoulis D, Rees AF, Hamza AA, Khalil M, Aureggi M, Levy Y, Türkozan O, Marco,A, Aguilar A, Cardona L. 2013. Mitochondrial DNA reveals Pleistocenic colonisation of the Mediterranean by loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 439: 15–24.

Clusa M, Carreras C, Pascual M, Gaughran FJ, Piovano S, Giacoma C, Fernández G, Levy Y, Tomás J, Raga JA, Maffucci F, Hochscheid S, Aguilar A, Cardona L. 2014. Fine-scale distribution of juvenile Atlantic and Mediterranean loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea Marine Biology 161: 509–519.

Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J et al. 2011. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats PLoS ONE, 5, e11842.

Crick HQP. 2004 The impact of climate change on birds Ibis 146: 48–56.

Demography Working Group of the Conference. 2015. Demography of marine turtles nesting in the Mediterranean Sea: a gap analysis and research priorities - 5th Mediterranean Conference on Marine Turtles, Dalaman, Turkey, 19-23 April 2015 Document T-PVS/Inf(2015)15E Presented at the Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats - 35th meeting of the Standing Committee - Strasbourg, 1 - 4 December 2015 (2015).

Dulvy NK, Sadovy Y, Reynolds JD. 2003. Extinction vulnerability in marine populations Fish and Fisheries 4: 25–64.

Dutton DL, Dutton PH, Chaloupka M, Boulon RH. 2005. Increase of a Caribbean leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea nesting population linked to long-term nest protection Biological Conservation 126, 186-194.

Echwikhi K, Jribi I, Bradai MN & Bouain A . 2010. Gillnet fishery-loggerhead turtle interactions in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia Herpetological Journal, 20, 25–30.

Encalada SE, Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB, Zurita JC, Schroeder B, Possardt E, Sears CJ, Bowne BW. 1998. Population structure of loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting colonies in the Atlantic and Mediterranean as inferred from mitochondrial DNA control region sequences Marine Biology 130: 567-575.

Epperly SP, Braun J, Chester AJ, Cross FA, Merriner JV, Tester PA, Churchill JH. 1996. Beach strandings as an indicator of at-sea mortality of sea turtles Bulletin of Marine Science 59: 289-297.

Fortuna CM,  Holcer  D,  Mackelworth  P  (eds.)  2015. Conservation of cetaceans and sea turtles in the Adriatic Sea: status of species and potential conservation  measures.  135 pages.  Report  produced  under  WP7  of  the  NETCET  project,  IPA  Adriatic Cross-border Cooperation Programme.

Fuentes MMPB, Limpus CJ, Hamann M. 2011. Vulnerability of sea turtle nesting grounds to climate change 17, 140–153

Garofalo L, Mastrogiacomo A, Casale P et al. 2013. Genetic characterization of central Mediterranean stocks of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and conservation implications Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 23: 868-884.

Giovannotti M, Franzellitti S, Ceriosi PN, Fabbri E, Guccione S, Vallini C, Tinti F, Caputo V. 2010. Genetic characterization of loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) individuals stranded and caught as bycatch from the North-Central Adriatic Sea Amphibia-Reptilia 31: 127 – 133.

Girondot M, Delmas V, Rivalan P, Courchamp F, Prevot-Julliard A-C, Godfrey MH. 2004. Implications of temperature dependent sex determination for population dynamics Pages 148–155 in N Valenzuela and V Lance, editors Temperature-dependent sex determination in vertebrates Smithsonian, Washington, DC, USA.

Godley BJ, Broderick AC, Mrvosovsky N. 2001. Estimating hatchling sex ratios of loggerhead turtles in Cyprus from incubation durations Marine Ecology Progress Series 210: 195-201.

Gómez de Segura A, Tomás, J, Pedraza, SN, Crespo, EA, Raga, JA. 2003. Preliminary patterns of distribution and abundance of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, around Columbretes Island Marine Reserve, Spanish Mediterranean Marine Biology 143: 817-823.

Gómez de Segura A, Tomás, J, Pedraza, SN, Crespo, EA, Raga, JA. 2006. Abundance and distribution of the endangered loggerhead turtle in Spanish Mediterranean waters and the conservation implications Animal Conservation 9: 199-206.

Groombridge B. 1990. Marine turtles in the Mediterranean: distribution, population status, conservation A report to the Council of Europe, Environment and Management Division Nature and Environment Series, Number 48 Strasbourg 1990.

Halpin PN, Read AJ, Fujioka E, et al. 2009.OBIS-SEAMAP The World Data Center for Marine Mammal, Sea Bird, and Sea Turtle Distributions Oceanography 22, 104-115.

Hamann M, Godfrey MH, Seminoff JA, et al. 2010 Global research priorities for sea turtles: informing management and conservation in the 21st century Endang Species Res 1: 245–269.

Hart KM, Mooreside, P, Crowder, LB. 2006. Interpreting the spatio-temporal patterns of sea turtle strandings: Going with the flow Biological Conservation 129: 283–290.

Hays GC, Broderick AC, Glen F, Godley BJ, Houghton JDR, Metcalfe JD. 2002. Water temperature and internesting intervals for loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtles Journal of Thermal Biology 27: 429–432.

Hays GC, Mazaris AD, Schofield G. 2014. Different male versus female breeding periodicity helps mitigate offspring sex ratio skews in sea turtles Frontiers in Marine Science 1, 43.

Heithaus MR, Frid A, Wirsin AJ, Dill LM, Fourqurean JW, Burkholder D, Thomson J, Bejder L. 2007. State‐dependent risk‐taking by green sea turtles mediates top‐down effects of tiger shark intimidation in a marine ecosystem Journal of Animal Ecology 76, 837-844.

Hochscheid S, Bentivegna F, Bradai MN, Hays GC. 2007. Overwintering behaviour in sea turtles: dormancy is optional Marine Ecology Progress Series 340: 287-298.

Hochscheid S, Bentivegna F, Hamza A,  Hays GC. 2007. When surfacers do not dive: multiple significance of extended surface times in marine turtles The Journal of Experimental Biology, 213, 1328–1337.

Houghton JDR, Woolmer A & Hays GC. 2000. Sea turtle diving and foraging behaviour around the Greek island of Kefalonia Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 80, 761–762.

Kasparek M, Godley BJ & Broderick AC. 2001. Nesting of the Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, in the Mediterranean: a turtle nesting at Akyatan beach Turkey, 1994-1997 Zoology in the Middle East, 24, 45–74.

Katselidis KA, Schofield G, Dimopoulos P, Stamou GN, Pantis JD. 2012. Females First? Past, present and future variability in offspring sex-ratio at a temperate sea turtle breeding area Animal Conservation 15(5) 508-518.

Katselidis KA, Schofield G, Dimopoulos P, Stamou GN, Pantis JD. 2013. Evidence based management to regulate the impact of tourism at a key sea turtle rookery Oryx 47:584-594.

Katselidis KA, Schofield G, Dimopoulos P, Stamou GN, Pantis JD. 2014. Employing sea-level rise scenarios to strategically select sea turtle nesting habitat important for long-term management Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 450, 47–54.

Kot CY, DiMatteo A, Fujioka E, Wallace B, Hutchinson B, Cleary J, Halpin P, Mast R. 2013. The State of the World's Sea Turtles Online Database.

Laurent L, Casale P, Bradai MN, et al. 1998. Molecular resolution of marine turtle stock composition in fishery bycatch: a case study in the Mediterranean Molecular Ecology 7, 1529-1542.

Lauriano G, Panigada S, Casale P, Pierantonio N, Donovan GP. 2011. Aerial survey abundance estimates of the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta in the Pelagos Sanctuary, northwestern Mediterranean Sea Marine Ecology Progress Series 437: 291– 302.

Lazar B, Casale P, Tvrtkovic N, Kozul V, Tutman P, Glavic N. 2004a. The presence of the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, in the Adriatic Sea Herpetological Journal 14: 143-147.

Lazar B, Casale P, Tvrtkovic N, Kozul V, Tutman P, Glavic N. 2004b. The presence of the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, in the Adriatic Sea Herpetological Journal, 14, 143–147.

Lazar B, Margaritoulis D & Tvrtkovic N. 2004a. Tag recoveries of the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta in the eastern Adriatic Sea: implications for conservation Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 84, 475–480.

Lee PLM, Schofield G, Haughey RI, Mazaris AD, Hays GC. In submission. Sex in the city revisited: movement impacts on packing density and female promiscuity.

Limpus CJ. 1993. The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in Queensland: breeding males in the southern Great Barrier Reef Wildlife Research 20(4) 513 – 523.

Limpus CJ. 2005. Research Publication Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Luschi P, Casale P. 2014. Movement patterns of marine turtles in the Mediterranean Sea: a review Italian Journal of Zoology 81: 478-495.

Maffucci F, D’Angelo I, Hochscheid S, et al. 2013. Sex ratio of juvenile loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea: Is it really 1:1? Mar Biol 160: 1097-1107.

Margaritoulis D, Argano R, Baran I et al. 2003. Loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea In: Bolten AB, Witherington BE (eds) Loggerhead sea turtles Smithsonian Books, Washington p 175–198.

Margaritoulis D, Teneketzis K. 2003. Identification of a developmental habitat of the green turtle in Lakonikos Bay, Greece. In First Mediterranean Conference on Marine Turtles (Margaritoulis D & Demetropoulos A eds) Barcelona Convention - Bern Convention - Bonn Convention (CMS), Rome, pp 170-175.

Mazaris AD, Almpanidou V, Wallace B, Schofield G. 2014. A global gap analysis of sea turtle protection coverage 2014 Biological Conservation 173, 17–23.

Mazaris AD, Matsions G, Pantis JD. 2009. Evaluating the impacts of coastal squeeze on sea turtle nesting Ocean & Coastal Management 52 (2009) 139–145.

MEDASSET. 2016. Map of Sea Turtle Rescue & First Aid Centres in the Mediterranean (Sea Turtle Rescue Map) www.medassetorg/our-projects/sea-turtle-rescue-map.

Milieu Ltd Consortium. 2014. Article 12 Technical Assessment of the MSFD 2012 obligations 7 February 2014 Finalversion.              

http://eceuropaeu/environment/marine/eu-coast-and-marine policy/implementation/pdf/national_reportszip)

Mitchell NJ, Allendorf FW, Keall SN, Daugherty CH, Nelson NJ. 2010. Demographic effects of temperature-dependent sex determination: will tuatara survive global warming? Glob Change Biol 16, 60–72.

Nada MA, Boura L, Grimanis K, Schofield G, El-Alwany MA, Noor N, Ommeran MM, Rabia B. 2013. Egypt’s Bardawil Lake: safe haven or deadly trap for sea turtles in the Mediterranean? A report by MEDASSET, Suez Canal University and Nature Conservation Egypt 79pp.

Patel SH. 2013. Movements, Behaviors and Threats to Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea PhD thesis Drexel University USA.

Pfaller JB, Bjorndal KA, Chaloupka M, Williams KL, Frick MG, Bolten AB. 2013. Accounting for Imperfect Detection Is Critical for Inferring Marine Turtle Nesting Population Trends PLoS One, 8 4: e623261-e623265 doi:101371/journalpone006232.

Piovano S, Clusa M, Carreras C et al. 2011. Different growth rates between loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) of Mediterranean and Atlantic origin in the Mediterranean Sea Mar Biol 158: 2577.

Poloczanska ES, Limpus CJ, Hays GC. 2009. Chapter 2 Vulnerability of Marine Turtles to Climate Change Advances in Marine Biology 56, 151–211.

Rees AF, Jony M, Margaritoulis D, Godley BJ. 2008. Satellite tracking of a green turtle, Chelonia mydas, from Syria further highlights the importance of North Africa for Mediterranean turtles Zoology in the Middle East, 45, 49–54.

Rees AF & Margaritoulis D. 2008. Comparison of behaviour of three loggerhead turtles tracked by satellite in and from Amvrakikos Bay, NW Greece 25th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, Savannah, Georgia, USA pp 84.

Rees AF, Margaritoulis D, Newman R, Riggall TE, Tsaros P, Zbinden JA, Godley BJ. 2013. Ecology of loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in a neritic foraging habitat: movements, sex ratios and growth rates Marine Biology 160, 519–529.

Saba VS, Stock CA, Spotila JR, Paladino FP, Santidrián-Tomillo P. 2012. Projected response of an endangered marine turtle population to climate change Nature Climate Change, 2, 814-820.

Saied A, Maffucci, F Hochscheid S, Dryag S, Swayeb B, Borra M, Ouerghi A, Procaccini G, Bentivegna F. 2012. Loggerhead turtles nesting in Libya: an important management unit for the Mediterranean stock Marine Ecology Progress Series, 450, 207–218.

Schofield G, Bishop CM, Katselidis KA, Dimopoulos P, Pantis JD, Hays GC. 2009. Microhabitat selection by sea turtles in a dynamic thermal environment Journal of Animal Ecology 78(1):14-22

Schofield G, Dimadi A, Fossette S, Katselidis KA, Koutsoubas D, et al. 2013b. Satellite tracking large numbers of individuals to infer population level dispersal and core areas for the protection of an endangered species Diversity and Distributions doi: 101111/ddi12077

Schofield G, Hobson VJ, Fossette S, Lilley MKS, Katselidis KA, Hays GC. 2010b. Fidelity to foraging sites, consistency of migration routes and habitat modulation of home range by sea turtles Diversity & Distributions, 16(5), 840–853.

Schofield G, Hobson VJ, Lilley MKS, Katselidis KA, Bishop CM, Brown P, Hays GC. 2010a. Inter-annual variability in the home range of breeding turtles: implications for current and future conservation management Biological Conservation 143:722-730.

Schofield G, Lilley MKS, Bishop CM, Brown P, Katselidis KA, Dimopoulos P, Pantis JD, Hays GC. 2009. Conservation hotspots: intense space use by breeding male and female loggerheads at the Mediterranean’s largest rookery Endangered Species Research 10:191-202.

Schofield G, Scott R, Dimadi A, Fossette S, Katselidis KA, Koutsoubas D, et al. 2013a Evidence based marine protected area planning for a highly mobile endangered marine vertebrate Biological Conservation, 161, 101-109.

Scott R, March R, Hays GC. 2011. Life in the really slow lane: loggerhead sea turtles mature late relative to other reptiles Functional Ecology 26, 227–235.

Snape RTE, Broderick AC, Cicek B, Fuller WJ, Glen F, Stokes K, Godley BJ. 2016. Shelf life: Neritic habitat use of a loggerhead turtle population highly threatened by fisheries Diversity and Distributions DOI: 101111/ddi12440.

Snape RTE, Schofield G, White M. In submission. Adult and juvenile loggerhead turtles use similar foraging habitats in the Central Mediterranean Sea .

Sprogis KR, Pollock KH, Raudino HC, Allen SJ, Kopps AM, Manlik O, Tyne JA, Beider L. 2016. Sex-specific patterns in abundance, temporary emigration and survival of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in coastal and estuarine waters Frontiers in Marine Science 3,12.

Stokes KL, Broderick AC, Canbolat AF, Candan O, Fuller WJ, Glen F, Godley BJ. 2015. Migratory corridors and foraging hotspots: critical habitats identified for Mediterranean green turtles. Diversity and Distributions.

Stokes KL, Fuller WJ, Godley BJ, Hodgson DJ, Rhodes KA, Snape RTE, Broderick AC. 2014. Detecting green shoots of recovery: the importance of long-term individual-based monitoring of marine turtles Animal Conservation 17, 593–602.

SWOT, 2006a, 2006b, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 State of the World’s Sea Turtles Reports vol I-VII Available from: http://seaturtlestatusorg/

Tucker. 2010. Nest site fidelity and clutch frequency of loggerhead turtles are better elucidated by satellite telemetry than by nocturnal tagging efforts: implications for stock estimation Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 383: 48–55.

UNEP(DEPI)/MED. 2011. Satellite Tracking of Marine Turtles in the Mediterranean Current Knowledge and Conservation Implications UNEP(DEPI)/MED WG359/inf8 Rev1

UNEP-MAP-RAC/SPA, 2007.Action Plan for the conservation of Mediterranean marine turtles.Ed.RAC/SPA, Tunis 40pp.

UNEP-MAP-RAC/SPA, 2013, Status of implementation of the action plans for conservation of marine turtles, birds and cartilaginous fishes, UNEP(DEPI)/MED WG.382/Inf.11

Vallini C, Mencacci R, Lambardi P, et al. 2006. Satellite tracking of three adult loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea Twenty Sixth Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation International Sea Turtle Society: Athens, Greece; 115.

 Wallace BP, DiMatteo AD, Hurley BJ, et al. 2010. Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales PLoS One 5, e15465.

Wallace BP, DiMatteo AD, Bolten AB et al. 2011. Global conservation priorities for marine turtles PLoS One 6, e24510.

White M, Boura L, Venizelos L. 2011. Monitoring an Important Sea Turtle Foraging Ground in Drini Bay, Albania Marine Turtle Newsletter 131.

White M, Boura L, Venizelos L. 2013. Population structure for sea turtles at Drini Bay: an important nearshore foraging and developmental habitat in Albania Chelonian Conserv Biol 12:283–292.

Whiting, AU, Chaloupka M, Limpus CJ. 2013. Comparing sampling effort and errors in abundance estimates between short and protracted nesting seasons for sea turtles Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 449 165-170 doi:101016/jjembe201309016.

Whiting, AU, Chaloupka M, Pilcher N, Basintal P, Limpus CJ. 2014. Comparison and review of models describing sea turtle nesting abundance Marine Ecology Progress Series, 508 233-246 doi:103354/meps10832.

Witt MJ, Hawkes LA, Godfrey MH, Godley BJ, Broderick AC. 2010. Predicting the impacts of climate change on a globally distributed species: the case of the loggerhead turtle. The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 901-911.

Yilmaz C, Turkozan O, Bardakic E, White M, Kararaj E. 2012. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) foraging at Drini Bay in Northern Albania: Genetic characterisation reveals new haplotypes Acta Herpetologica 7: 155-162.

Zbinden JA, Aebischer AA, Margaritoulis D, Arlettaz R. 2007. Insights into the management of sea turtle internesting area through satellite telemetry Biol Cons 137: 157-162.

Zbinden, JA, Aebischer, A, Margaritoulis, D & Arlettaz, R. 2008. Important areas at sea for adult loggerhead sea turtles in the Mediterranean Sea: satellite tracking corroborates findings from potentially biased sources Marine Biology, 153, 899–906.

Zbinden JA, Bearhop S, Bradshaw P, Gill B, Margaritoulis D, Newton J & Godley BJ. 2011. Migratory dichotomy and associated phenotypic variation in marine turtles revealed by satellite tracking and stable isotope analysis Marine Ecology Progress Series, 421, 291–302.

Zbinden J A, Largiadèr CR, Leippert F, Margaritoulis D, Arlettaz R. 2007. High frequency of multiple paternity in the largest rookery of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles Molecular Ecology 16:3703-3711.